The balanced diet, visit this along with education and exercise, order are the mainstays of treatment of diabetes.
Physical activity is useful and necessary for everyone, but especially for the diabetic patient, where it should be part of the mechanisms of disease control. We can not talk about good control of this disease if the person does not enter into his life physical activity.
The benefits of exercise in diabetes generate:
- Slowing and / or stabilization of blood glucose levels during and after exercise.
- Decreased insulin requirements to improve the sensitivity.
- Increased energy expenditure.
- Improves the lipid profile.
- It reduces cardiovascular risk factors.
- Produce sense of wellbeing.
- Help promote social integration.
As we see, the benefits of regular physical activity are many and varied, but before the exercise must take a number of precautions:
- It is necessary to assess as glucose before starting the exercise, because the risk of hypoglycemia is always present.
- Consider the type of exercise to perform, the eventual need for insulin and prior feeding.
- In the case of needing insulin, the same shall be applied, pre-exercise, outside the area that will be activated during this. For example in the arms if you will run or abdomen if swimming, so that its absorption is not affected by local vasodilation.
- The exercise allows blood sugar drops, when practiced, impacting up 12-24 hours after having made.
- Use cotton socks (white), to prevent injury or clear them quickly.
- Wear comfortable shoes that fit well and is designed for the activity you will be doing.
- After exercising, Check your feet for cuts to see, sores, bumps or redness.
- If a problem occurs in the feet, consult a physician.
Besides taking precautions need to know that the activity can also elicit adverse effects on metabolic control. Therefore we can mention:
- Early onset possibility of hypoglycemia and / or delayed until 24 hours after practice.
- Exercise-induced hyperglycemia: diabetic child in response to intense and unusual exercise is abnormal and may lead to hyperglycaemia.
- Hyperglycemia and ketosis, especially in children with poorly controlled or insulin deficiency.
These effects are minimized if one takes into account the previous point prevention.
Types recommended for people with diabetes practice exercises are low resistance (aerobics) because peripheral blood circulation favor, improving oxygenation and nutrition of all cells. Example; walk, bicycle, swimming, etc..
There are recommended exercises high strength (anaeróbica) because the decrease in tissue oxygenation activity and blood pressure increase. Examples: bodybuilding, weightlifting, etc.. And those in which a fade for a decline in blood glucose could be fatal as motorsport, high altitude mountaineering, skydiving or windsurfing. Should be ruled (by the associated risk of vascular injury) with violent sports like karate and repeated trauma, taekwondo boxing.
To make the exercise more effective and better adaptation of the organism should be:
- Journal on the alternate days.
- Regular ie: at the same time, intensity and duration.
- Aerobic, should not reach the exhaustion.
- It should be challenging and fun (is best achieved in the group individually).
If you practice any kind of unusual exercise, you should follow a few tips:
- It's good to make the sport company.
- It is desirable to perform sports that establish duration and intensity to assess energy expenditure and to modify treatment.
- Every diabetic should learn to know the changes of blood glucose with certain exercises and thus able to adjust treatment. Modification of insulin and intake each year must be controlled. This is perfect in practice, so that adaptation to the activity should be gradual and incremental.
- Exercise should be done preferably after food intake (carbohydrates), which are the main source of energy of our muscles.
This is an overview, but each person must learn to know yourself and evaluate by the medical team not only the particular needs, but also the ideal activity to achieve the combination of health, scatter joy and so necessary in anyone.