Being runner, ampoule bottom half of the engage al athletics, link implies a particular requirement for the heart and of course for the rest of the muscles and joints. In this note, an analysis of what happens to the cuore to do high impact exercise.
The practice of physical effort has a number of responses from our body. If this effort is isolated and not repeated on two, three weeks or longer, We are facing a “Acute Physiological Response”. For example, if we play football every so or if one day we swam in the sea, or climb a hill walking body to make that effort gives an acute response. In this response the body tries to meet the temporary needs of the physical effort, but work leaves no footprint and has served to hang isolated sport. In short an acute demand is made and also acute response is obtained.
But when physical exertion is repeated with a certain intensity, duration and periodicity in time, clearly we are dealing with what we call a “training”. On the chance that these three variables differ to a greater or lesser extent will influence, individual's age and physical condition from which the top part of the whole process. Also on the peculiarity of each to respond in one way or another to this training will influence genetic factors that will affect. Ie if a group of people performing the same training, the yield response will be different to be influenced by individual genetic factors. The answer would get against this stimulus continued exercise would be to a chronic adaptation of the organism in general.
The biological effects that will occur as a result of this chronic adaptation will manifest primarily on musculoskeletal system, (muscle hypertrophy, increased strength, speed, increased elasticity of ligaments etc.. ); on blood (increase hematocrito, hematíes etc. ); on body composition (reducing body fat, or increase lean muscle mass etc. ..); but especially, the most important changes, They are those that take place on the oxygen supply system, which is mainly constituted by the respiratory and circulatory system (heart, arteries, arteriolas, capillaries, veins).
On the respiratory system, we can say very little, because although some very important changes occur during exercise, if this system is normally not cause or origin of any limitation during exercise.
About the heart they will produce some changes basically defined by, hypertrophy of the heart muscle (enlarged cardiac fiber), cavities increase the ventricles, reduction in heart rate at rest and submaximal exercise and changes in the appearance of consistent baseline ECG repolarization, conduction disturbances and some type of arrhythmia, always benign. All these changes produce what has been called “heart syndrome athlete” and is the expression of a chronic adaptation of the heart to a continued demand in a given time and exercise intensity.
It is obvious that the heart muscle is skeletal muscle difference. We all understand that physical work can lead us to exhaustion by depletion of skeletal muscle and that this needs time to recover and rest idle. But of course the heart can not take another second off.
These differences make us understand that, even if it's muscles, the differences between them are obvious. From the point of view of energy storage skeletal muscle has an availability for about an hour and from there makes use of other sources of glycogen ( liver glycogen ) and then fat etc.. However, the heart has very little storage space dedicated so much so that its energy is exhausted if we make maximum effort in a 16-18 seconds and at rest in 40 seconds approximately. We then compared to a specialized heart muscle cells to obtain high-energy molecules very quickly (ATP, fosfato creatinina) because their cells have a higher concentration of mitochondria (factories Adenosis triphosphate or ATP) the rest of muscle cells, but at the same time to obtain the large amount of energy are these cells a dependency “almost” exclusive of oxygen.
The extraction of oxygen by the heart from the blood takes place “maximum” even at rest, a fact which does not occur in skeletal muscle because this removes the rest 25% the total oxygen reaching the will and the maximum stress can be reached between the extract 75-80% . So the heart as the maximum effort and everything he asks maximum oxygen, to meet these increased needs during exercise, making is “increase” the size of the “pipes” that carry blood. Ie increases the size of the “coronary artery”, that fit the gauge temporarily increasing during exercise (vasodilation) or by increasing the vessel diameter steadily. Therefore we can find in elite athletes such as cyclists, runners etc.. coronary arteries with a size twice or even three times the size of a normal individual. That is, we can find calibres between 6-7-8 mm.
Another adaptation of the heart when a regular aerobic training is conducted is a lengthening of the cardiac muscle fiber leading to an increase in heart chambers. This is what is known as cardiomegaly. The consequences of this increased size is that in each “embolada” the volume of blood it is higher and therefore the amount of oxygen contained in the blood with each beat is augmented. Another important adaptation is the reduction in heart rate both at rest and during submaximal exercise (between 70-75% max). This means that an individual at rest, untrained, your heart has a frequency of approximately bpm 70 and as the amount of blood pumped medium is about 70 cc. each beat, if we multiply the two numbers to get a total 4.900 cc. blood per minute (this figure is known as cardiac output, amount of blood pumped by the heart in one minute).
In an individual trained, resting, your heart can beat around 40 as the heart beats and this guy is enlarged, the amount pumped more and this would be about a half of 120 cc. Blood in each “embolada”. If we multiply the two values ​​we obtain a total 4.800 cc. thus we can see how to stand the same amount of blood pumped by the two individuals.
Another difference is that occurring at levels of submaximal exercise. The untrained individual is beginning to tire and trained individual to make the same effort and pump the same amount of blood the untrained and requires fewer keystrokes, therefore, takes the same level of work with less effort. Already in the maximum effort we can see how the two individuals have their hearts beating the most, of course we can calculate as the trained individual pumps more blood than can untrained, sometimes, achieve this increase to a 70-80% blood over one another. It is natural that the individual will perform trained harder and longer lasting efforts to pump more blood your heart.
Regarding heart rate we have seen that with this training may be reduced at rest and submaximal exercise, maximal exercise but it does not change.
The maximum heart rate usually is conditioned by age, the formula for calculating it is 220 minus age in years ( an individual 40 years would have their maximum heart rate 180 beats). That is as much as an individual train, this will not change, but as we have seen before with the difference is not trained to pump more blood to the heart rate being the same.
These changes on heart rate at rest and submaximal exercise involving the most important adaptation that makes the heart in response to training and from all modifications that fall within the “athlete's heart syndrome” and that years ago were regarded as heart disease and now know that they are normal.

Source: Daniel Esparza Andión, Spanish athlete

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