They are the preferred source of fuel the human body. Muscles, brain and other tissues such as liver are based on a continuous supply of carbohydrates to meet the energy demands of the body.
In food, carbohydrates are the main source of energy supply, the 50% de las calorías provienen de los hidratos de carbono. They are classified in:


Monosacáridos, también llamados azúcares simples, they are:

  • Glucose (dextrose), It is the most abundant and important physiologically monosaccharides. It is the primary fuel for the cells useful. It is found free in mature fruits and blood. Digestion of all forms of carbohydrates produces glucose, as well as the issuance process of the pair glucose accumulated in the muscle or liver (glucogenolisis) or the formation of glucose from other substances such as amino acids and fatty acids (gluconeogenesis).
  • Fructose (levulosa), found in ripe fruits and in honey. Has higher sweetening power than glucose.
  • Galactose, se encuentra libres en la naturaleza y se une con la glucosa para formar un disacárido.

Disacáridos, es la unión de dos monosacáridos.

  • Maltosa, también llamada azúcar de la malta. It is formed by bonding 2 glucose. Is the product of the hydrolysis of starch and amylase enzyme catalyzed. Sources: Cereals, beer, malt liquor.
  • Lactose, esta formada por la unión de la galactosa con la glucosa. Sources: Appears naturally in milk (in large quantities).
  • Sucrose, está formada por la unión de glucosa y la fructosa. Sugar is commonly used as a sweetener in food. Sources: It's derived from sugar cane and beet.

Polisacáridos, son sustancias mucho más complejas que los glúcidos. They are made up of many units of monosaccharides, some of which are polymers of one type of monosaccharide and are called homopolysaccharides while other, are polymers of more than one type of monosaccharide and are termed the heteropolysaccharide. Constitute the largest percentage of the daily intake of carbohydrates.

  • Starch, es una sustancia que cumple el papel de reserva nutricia en vegetales. Is deposited in the cells, starch is the main carbohydrate for Food. It is composed of amylose and amylopectin, both glucose polymers. The most common foods that contain large amounts of starch are cereals, las legumbres y las papas.
  • Fiber, existen solo en las plantas, fiber increases the rate of digestion and absorption contribute to satiety and in some cases may reduce the total fat absorption.
  • Glycogen, es el polisacárido de reserva en células animales. The liver and muscle tissues are richer in glycogen.

Es importante destacar que cualquier exceso de carbohidratos automáticamente se acumulará en forma de grasa en el cuerpo, por ello es importante tener un consumo moderado de los mismo.


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